The area had been closed off since the s to archaeological research and the UAB is the only research team from Spain participating in the dig. After many years working in Syria and Turkey, where all work was halted due to the military instability of the area, the research team coordinated by professor Miquel Molist continues to study the origins and consolidation of the first farming societies, in this case in the most eastern part of Upper Mesopotamia. Iraqi Kurdistan is one of the most interesting regions of the Middle East, given that since the s and until three years ago no archaeological research could be conducted there, making it a new geographic and historical site in which to conduct archaeological studies. The first campaign was conducted in autumn and the second took place in May and in the first week of June The Gird Lashkir site is an archaeological tell with exceptional potential, with some 14 metres of sediments and a surface of approximately 4 hectares occupied by ancient populations. It is located close to the temporary river of Wadi Kasnazan and the cities of Kasnazan and Banaslawa, pertaining to the current capital of Kurdistan, Erbil northern Iraq. The archaeological dig has revealed a series of occupancies which go from the Neolithic period to the first millennium BCE.

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This place was once a major tourist attraction with thousands of visitors. Inside the walls, this shrine has a dome with Hebrew inscriptions mixed with floral Islamic designs. Before the war, Iraq had the second largest Jewish community in the Middle East the first being Israel and the third being Iran. Yearly, thousands of Jews used to visit this place during Easter.

Nowadays, with the lack of security, this is not possible anymore as most Iraqi Jews left the country.

The Harvard community has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits you. Your story matters Citation Kopanias, Kostas, John MacGinnis, and Jason Ur (eds.). “Archaeological Projects in the Kurdistan Region in Iraq.” The evidence for an independent kingdom dating to the time of the Middle/Neo-Assyrian.

Ancient history[ edit ] The region in which Erbil lies was largely under Sumerian domination from c. Today the Assyrian people , a Syriac-speaking community who claim descent from Akkadian speakers , endure as a minority in northern Iraq, north east Syria, south east Turkey and north west Iran, their population is estimated to be 3. Later, Erridupizir , king of the language isolate speaking kingdom of Gutium , captured the city in BC.

Under the Median Empire , Cyaxares might have settled a number of people from the Ancient Iranian tribe of Sagartians in the Assyrian cities of Arbela and Arrapha modern Kirkuk , probably as a reward for their help in the capture of Nineveh. After the battle, Darius managed to flee to the city, and, somewhat inaccurately, the confrontation is sometimes known as the “Battle of Arbela”.

Subsequently, Arbela was part of Alexander’s Empire. Erbil became part of the region disputed between Rome and Persia under the Sasanids. Its populace then gradually converted from the Mesopotamian religion between the 1st and 4th centuries to the Assyrian Church of the East Christianity and to a lesser degree to the Syriac Orthodox Church , with Pkidha traditionally becoming its first bishop around AD, although the ancient Assyrian religion did not die out entirely in the region until the 10th century AD.

From the city’s Christian period come many church fathers and well-known authors in Syriac. Following the Muslim conquest of Persia , the Sasanid province of Assuristan , of which Erbil made part of, was dissolved, and from the mid 7th century AD the region saw a gradual influx of Muslim peoples, predominantly Arabs , Kurds and Turkic peoples. The most notable Kurdish tribe in the region were the Hadhbani, of which several individuals also acted as governors for the city from the late 10th century until the 12th century when it was conquered by the Zengids and its governorship given to the Turkic Begtegenids, who retained the city during the Ayyubid era [21] [22] Yaqut al-Hamawi further describes Erbil as being mostly Kurdish-populated in the 13th century.

They plundered the lower town but had to retreat before an approaching Caliphate army and had to put off the capture of the citadel. In , after Ghazan had felt strong enough to overcome Nauruz’s influence, he put a stop to the persecutions. In the Spring of , the Malek governor of the region attempted to seize it from them with the help of the Kurds.

Amazing Historic Site

Ancient history Erbil is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in history. Later, Erridupizir , king of Gutium, captured the city in BC. Under the Median Empire , Cyaxares might have settled a number of people from the Ancient Iranian tribe of Sagartians in Arbela and Kirkuk, probably as a reward for their help in the capture of Nineveh. After the battle, Darius managed to flee to the city, and, somewhat inaccurately, the confrontation is sometimes known as the “Battle of Arbela”.

Erbil became part of the region disputed between Rome and Persia under the Sasanids.

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Lalish The location of the tomb of Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir, main figure of the Yezidi faith — pilgrimage site of the Yezidis — one of the most mysterious people in the world. The ancient rituals of this people are fascinating and they are considered by many to be the remnant of the original religion of Kurdistan. Gali Sheeran Valley Experience an adventurous journey, climbing an active aqueduct, to the most beautiful river in Iraqi Kurdistan.

You’ll be rewarded with a refreshing swim in ice cold, crystal clear, turquoise waters from the Kurdistani mountain snow-melt. Only available from June to October. It’s also an important memorial for the , innocent Kurdish civilians murdered in the Anfal genocide, which occurred from to Recently a new wing was also opened to commemorate the brae Kurdish fighters who fell in the battle against ISIS. It was the official residence of the patriarchs of the Eliya line of the Church of the East from to the 18th century, and after the union with Rome in the early 19th century, it became a prominent monastery of the Chaldean Catholic Church.


It has a population close to 26 million. Saudi Arabia is poised to remain the region’s healthiest economic engine for years to come, and will always be an important marketplace for any world brand. It is essential to partner with a company that has the knowledge, skills, resources and manpower in Saudi Arabia to properly represent your company and brand.

The region in and around Saudi Arabia has been home to various cultures for more than 5, years.

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The text of the email is below. Read it if you wish, share this article if you feel so moved. However, whatever you do, be sure to ACT! Only through sustained prayer and action will we overcome all evils. Dear All, I have received these two emails from our missionary friends, one yesterday and one this morning. Much love and blessings This is so sad He is part of a mission and ISIS has taken over the town they are in today. He said so far not one child has.

And so far all have consequently been killed.

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Several major mountain ranges surround the area, including the mountains of Hendrin, Zozik, Hassen Bak, Bradust and Korek. The area has two main rivers, one that flows to Haji Umran on the Iranian borer, and another that follows the path to the Mergasor region. Gullan Park Gulan Park is 3 km from the center of Soran and contains fun rides for children and families to enjoy.

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Neanderthal remains[ edit ] The ten Neanderthals at the site were found within a Mousterian layer which also contained hundreds of stone tools including points , side-scrapers , and flakes and bones from animals including wild goats and spur-thighed tortoises. The others Shanidar 1, 2, and were kept in Iraq and may have been lost during the invasion , although casts remain at the Smithsonian.

He was aged between 40 and 50 years, remarkably old for a Neanderthal—equivalent to 80 years old today [6] [ citation needed ]—and displayed severe signs of deformity. He was one of four reasonably complete skeletons from the cave which displayed trauma -related abnormalities, which in his case would have been debilitating to the point of making day-to-day life painful.

Analysis shows that Shanidar 1 likely suffered from profound hearing loss, as his left ear canal was partially blocked and his right ear canal was completely blocked by exostoses. This is thought to be either congenital , a result of childhood disease and trauma or due to an amputation later in his life. The arm had healed but the injury may have caused some paralysis down his right side, leading to deformities in his lower legs and foot and would have resulted in him walking with a pronounced, painful limp.

Shanidar 1 is not the only Neanderthal, at this site or in the entire archaeological record , who displays both trauma and healing.


Arrival in Erbil Erbil is the capital city of the Kurdistan region and the main gateway. The airport is fantastic and modern; flying into Erbil is usually easy and fast. Read the FAQ section to find out how to get there. After arrival, feel free to head out and explore the beautiful capital city.

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Erbil is compesed of the following Districts: Visa-free entry or visa on arrival valid for 15 days is possible for most Westerners, many Middle Easterners and some other countries. All foreign tourists will find a warm welcome from locals. Northern Iraq is served by Erbil International Airport with a growing number of international airlines serving Erbil.

Services includes direct flights to many domestic destinations as well as flights to international destinations in the Middle East, North Africa and Europe. After that you must visit the residency office to extend your stay. Most other nationalities must obtain a visa, or they may seek a letter of invitation from the KRG Department of Foreign Relations to facilitate a visa into the Kurdistan Region.

There are bus companies running services connecting Erbil to Dyiarbakir in Turkey hours and Istanbul h: Cizre Nuh Buses run everyday at Tickets can be bought from the many bus company offices at Family Mall. Bus from Diyabakir to Erbil leaves at Daily service from Erbil to Istanbul, at Friendly service and location near citadel.


This is the reaction I received from most of those who knew I was going to Iraq. What do I think is crazy? People who continue to go to the same beach resorts time after time on their days off.

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Marble courtyards, lush palm trees and exclusive gated communities a drive away from ISIS aggression. Malibu has come to Iraq. A robust real estate market has made Erbil, the Kurdish capital in northern Iraq , home to the country’s wealthy elite and the site of their palatial mansions. Iraqi and Kurdish millionaires, politicians, oil tycoons and wealthy Iraqi refugees have flocked to Kurdistan, according to Shwan Zulal, managing director of Carduchi Consulting, a firm based in London and Erbil.

A broken banking industry and lack of faith in Iraq’s government have forced the country’s rich to find other places to put their money. So they’re investing in lavish residences. The boom actually started in , when the Iraqi government began to invest money in real estate projects across the country. Many of the contractors building these homes are domestic companies, like the Nasri group that has invested heavily in Dream City, an upscale real estate development in Erbil that offers residents access to private pools, health facilities and luxury shopping centers.

Dream City is also where one businessman who made his fortune in oil is building a multimillion-dollar White House replica he will soon call home. Meanwhile, ISIS hasn’t scared off investors or homeowners, Zulal said, adding that buyers have been assured protection by the U.

Baghdad says Erbril airport off limits for international flights from Friday evening